Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Death penalty Essay - 550 Words

Death penalty (Essay Sample) Content: NameInstitutionCourseDate The death penalty has been a source of much controversy worldwide. The arguments for and against this law are as varied as the proponents and opponents. Various countries face different problems when making up their minds on the position of their laws and death penalty. The offenses punishable by death in most countries include murder and robbery with violence. However, cultural and religious influences have led some countries to come up with special circumstances under which the death penalty is applicable. Some include drug trafficking, and even adultery! Proponents of the death penalty claim to be doing the world a favor by getting rid of criminals permanently. However, opponents claim that there is no possible act that a human being could commit that makes him deserving of death. Proponents of the death penalty are mainly conservative people who prefer to follow ancient traditions and beliefs. In most societies of the early ages (even in the bible), people were condemned to death by hanging, stoning, shooting or other death for offenses such as murder, treason, theft, rape or adultery. As civilization evolved, the death penalty was reserved for more serious crimes such as murder, rape and robbery with violence. Nowadays, the countries that still have the death penalty only execute convicts of robbery with violence and murder. They are however under constant criticism especially from human rights groups. They are of the view that many wrongly convicted individuals have been executed. This is true since there are several cases where a suspect was convicted and executed only for new evidence to be revealed years later (Mitchell, 2001). On the other hand, those who support the death penalty claim that there is no need to jail people for life since they become a liability. Maintaining a prison facility is expensive since it requires guards, staff such as cooks, cleaners and others to take care of it. Tax payers also have to feed the prisoners who basically do nothing all day. Proponents see it better to execute these convicts and be done with the expense (Mitchell, 2001). Another view is that some of the people jailed for life feel they have nothing to lose even if they get caught and therefore continue criminal activity even from the confines of their prison cells. Therefore, rather than deal with this, proponents find it better to execute them. Su...

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Video Games And Its Impact On Society - 1497 Words

Video games have now been in existence for a few decades, and in such a short time have evolved greatly. The first video game was created to be a military artillery calculator, then others played with the idea and pong was created, packman would become one of the most wildly known game in arcades, and now we have games such as call of duty or battlefield that can be played on a device that would use to require an entire room just for the computing power. Games have made a large leap in technology from two white rectangles rebounding a ball between one another, to the ability of virtual reality that visually has few faults that can be noticed by the human eye thanks to the high frames per second displayed to the user’s eyes. Along with the†¦show more content†¦I had become entranced by the same concepts that lure people to Las Vegas and keep them in the casinos. Being still young and having been introduced to these new worlds of far off lands and mythical creatures, my imagination would grow and dream of what my own games would be. I would create my own characters scribbling down who they were and with a child’s artistic ability, attempt to illustrate these people and monsters that were in my imagination and depict how they would speak, where they were from, and why they were there. These ideas would grow and new ideas would flow, with every new game the ideas I had would intertwine with thoughts of my own, and that of others. My imagination would continue to develop while I added all these stories to the archives of my mind for inspiration when I would create a new story. Advancing to my mid-teens I had continued to find fascination with all the new technological breakthroughs being released. The worlds that were displayed to me as a young child were becoming more realistic. The characters were beginning to appear more lively, buildings would have more architectural detail, and the terrains appeared to have life within them, even the wind ’s light breeze could be seen passing through a tree, carrying the leaves into view while two monsters conversed about what to do to a captured human. This hidden exquisiteness overshadowed by theShow MoreRelatedVideo Games And Its Impact On Society Essay909 Words   |  4 Pagesgraphics can help a video game come to life. Today artist use different styles and modern technology to improve coloring, modeling and drawing in their work. Over decades of technological advancements video games have taken a life of their own considering them to be a new form of art. Generally critics may disagree on video games to be consider art due to its more known genre games in this particular entertainment industry that is their â€Å"shooter games† and their â€Å"sport games.† When getting passedRead MoreVideo Games And Its Impact On Society1220 Words   |  5 Pagesinvention of the i-phone. One of them however is the invention of video games. Video games were invented in 1940, by a man named Edward U. Condon. This invention gave birth to a whole new genre of entertainment. One that will have a much greater affect than intended to be. The product of the video game has turned into a world wide phenomenon and has changed society. There are many factors into the changes it has made to the world. The video games of today have become a great part of our lives. Now how hasRead MoreVideo Games And Its Impact On Society1787 Words   |  8 PagesComputer games are entertainment and recreation tools that a lot people have been enjoying for a long time. Young and old are playing these computer game in order to enjoy themselves. Computer games are getting bigger in the industry since a lot of people are demanding to get more games. Computer games are b eginning to be a business. Between 1970s and 1980s, It is considered the golden age of video gaming due to rapid gaining popularity of the video game arcade at that time. (Auction Game Sales) TheRead MoreThe Effects of Video Games on Children1610 Words   |  6 PagesMany participants also suggested that the games caused the children to have strong imaginations, while a few disagreed. 61.0% said that electronic games did not cause the children to lack good behavior. The survey also showed that electronic games do not cause the children to be skilled in terms of their self expression, and do not cause them visual stress. On the issue concerning obesity, the percentage of the respondents who said that electronic games caused children to be obese was equal to theRead MoreThe Positive and Negative Aspects of Video Games in Society968 Words   |  4 PagesIn our modern society, we rely on varieties of entertainment in order to satisfy our need for enjoyment. One type of entertainment, which is currently becoming more prominent in our culture is video games. As it is becoming more prominent, it is also evolving throughout the years. Video games now are becoming more complex and influential in our society. People can use this type of entertainment was a way to relieve stress or a way to socialize with others online. Video games is almost available everywhereRead MoreViolent Video Games and Their Impact on Children850 Words   |  3 PagesViolent Video Games and Their Impact on Children Outline Introduction A. Thesis: Although there are some reports of such games terribly impacting children, most research says that the violence in them is understood to be unrealistic, and thus not internalized and regurgitated back through increased aggressiveness in behavior. Reports Showing Violent Video Games Increase Aggression Exposure to violent video games has been lined to increases in aggression. Such reports have linked violent videoRead MoreEffects of Violent Video Games on Children Essay1660 Words   |  7 PagesEffects of Violent Video Games on Children The use of video games has become tremendously popular among children and adolescents in the past decade. In fact, â€Å"Sixty-eight percent of U.S. households play computer or video games.† (David Jenkins, 2009) This statistic reveals how important it is to understand the effects that these games can have on individuals and more specifically, children. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted investigating whether video games have positive orRead MoreThe Effects Of Video Games On The Society876 Words   |  4 Pagesin Anderson Bushman 2001.a), the popularity of video games specially is rapidly increasing. Nonetheless, ferocious electronic games are an attraction of attention to children, teenagers, and even adults. In fact, in another U.S study by Butchman Funk (As Cited in Anderson Bushman 2001.b) on 4th grade students, three of every four boys and six out of every ten girls favour violent computer games. This essay will argue that violence in video games sh ould be censored. For the purpose of this essayRead More`` Not Here : If We re Truly Serious About Stopping Massacres Like1687 Words   |  7 Pagesthat violence performed in the form of mass killing have definite causes. People are fascinated by the violence. He further suggests that evil and mass killing incidents in Aurora and Port Arthur are just few examples of that evil. The evil in our society is growing in large portion and people are more attracted towards violence. The article discusses invention of superheroes during late 1930s in order to response to European Fascism. However, now the popularity of superheroes lies somewhere else.Read MoreVideo Games Are Not Considered The Aspect Of Learning1695 Words   |  7 Pagesa secret what the video game industry has experienced rapid growth. During 2009 to 2012, in the United States, the video game industry is increasing faster than the US economy as a whole four times, the report from the Entertainment Software Association rel eased under in recent. Video games may be expected to continue to take place our TV, computers, smart phones and screen. By 2016, the size of the global game market will reach $ 86.1 billion. 1.2 Connect Although video games are always not considered

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gpd the Ultimate Measurement of Economys Wealth Essay...

GDP: The ultimate measurement of a countrys wealth? A lot of us have heard of the term GDP, especially toward the end of official year, but probably dont pay much attention to it. But to economists, businessmen, firms as well as governments, GDP is one of the most important tool used to reflect how a country do not only in economic but also in social and political perspectives. But what is GDP? What are its components? Why is it so important? And if GDP is that important and necessary, why are there still controversies against it? GDP or Gross Domestic Product is defined as the total value of final goods and services produced within a countrys border during a specific period, usually a year. The phrase produced within a†¦show more content†¦Normally, real GDP is a much better measurement then nominal GDP for the basic fact that the value of a loaf of bread is remained unchanged, but because of the fluctuation of the inflation, that makes it market price different. GDPs components consist of consumption, government spending, investment, and net export (export minus import). Consumer consumption is considered as the most important fragment of GDP, taking up about 70% of a countrys GDP. If the economy is doing well, unemployment rate and inflation are kept low, people tend to have more money to spend which can boost the economy growth by so many times. GDP is not only an important indicator to a countrys economy growth but also to social and politic perspectives. GDP reflects unemployment rate, inflation and interest rate. The Federal Reserve has continuously raised the interest rate at .25 point for more than 10 successive times in other to attract more and more investment. Government spending, as a part of GDP, has also increased from year to year. As a year passes, economists, firms and governments look at GDP as an indicator for the following years economic policy in order to keep the economy go in a right track. GDP is also an indicator of recession, when an economy experiences two successive declines in GDP, the economy is going through recession. For the down side, even though GDP is the best measurement of a countrys

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Case Study & Lecture notes for Organisational Theory of Coca-Cola

Question: Dscuss how and why they provide us with alternative ways of understanding and analysing Coca-Cola and its relationship with its organisational environment? Answer: Introduction Before getting into the detailed analysis of Coca-Cola and its relationship with organizational environment, we will first get the idea of organizational theory. Orgnisational theory or OT is the amalgamation of many theories and approaches to an organizational study. It cannot be explained in an organized progression of ideas and notions or a combined amount of knowledge in which each development is extended and carefully build on it. It is the study of the organizational structures and designs and the association of the organization with the external world. It implies the ways by which an organization can deal with rapid change. Organizational theory can be classified into the following: Classical Organizational Theory Bureaucratic Organizational Theory Functional specification Organizational Theory Human Relations Organizational Theory Systems Theory The following diagram shows the four major perspective of organizations framework: In this case study we will be using two perspective i.e., modernist and post modernist. We will now throw some light on the ontology and epistemology. Modernism Symbolic Interpretivism Postmodernism Ontology Objectivism: Confidence on the objective, external realism the existence of which is free of our knowledge. Ontology Subjectivism: Principle that we cant know the external or the existence of objectivism without the awareness of the subjectivism. We agree to thing which exists. Ontology Postmodernism: The idea that the world appears through speech and is situated in communication. What is spoken about exists so everything that exists is to be executed Epistemology Positivism: To find out the truth through applicable conceptualization and dependable measurement that permits us to examine the knowledge as opposed to the objectivism. Here the knowledge builds up which allow humans to develop and progress. Epistemology Interpretivism: The knowledge is comparative to the knower and it will be understood from the viewpoint of the people who directly have a grip of it. Truth is constructive through many interpretations of the knowledge and thus it reallocates and modify through time. Epistemology: Postmodernism: Meanings are not fixed because knowledge cannot be accurate in relation to truth. There are only assumptions and interpretations; there are no free realism and facts. The term post modern and modern has become a common prevalence in the organizational theory. Postmodern is interpreted as perspective or a model of thought. Postmodern perspective differs very much from the modernist perspective in the process of thinking which shuns the words like individual, organizations, culture, etc (Bruns, 2001). The mentioned terms relate to the attributes of modern perspective and this is because the modernist style of thinking depends on the strong ontology of existence which has the advantage of thinking in way of distinct phenomenon (Hindrichs, 2011). Post modern perspective is a weak ontology of befitting which highlights on the developing and transient reality (Posner, 2011). Here the meanings are not fixed but fluctuating. According to the modernist the culture in corporate can influence the individuals performance in the organization (Alexander, 2004). It forms a ethos where the individual shares similar goal (McBride, 2010). They squabble that the ext ernal factors can help an help the organization towards performance improvable or can lessen the efficiency if the organization cannot draw level with change whereas post- modernism emphasize on the fact that organizational culture is not actual (McBride, 2010). They have a different philosophy towards the culture and believe it to be illusion. They encourage power and sustain it to make them feel privileged among the others in the organization. Modernism stresses on efficiency and effectiveness and help individuals to understand the organizational culture on the contrary post-modernism struggles to achieve power over each other. Two dissimilar but free style of thinking are distinct in the current conjecture in human science. Coca-Cola deals with beverages by manufacturing and then sells and promotes such beverages around the globe (Coca-Cola Co (THE), 2005). Apart from the drink the company offers other products also. Currently the company has more than 400 brands across 195 countries around the globe. Organizational efficiency portrays how well an organization is functioning. Performance is used in indication to which a degree to which a company is moving towards realizing its goals. In modernism theory attributes like labor commoditization, adaptation to technology is taken into account whereas satisfaction of employees and its benefits are looked into in the perspective of post modernism (Green and Crowther, 2004). Coca-Colas capability to adopt and seeking for new markets made them achieve a globally accepted brand name. They focused strongly on marketing and growth. In addition to advertisements and promotions, they also distributed thousands of free coupons of glasses of coca cola so that everyone could taste. Toward a critical framework for understanding MNE operations: Revisiting Coca Colas exit from India When coca cola started its business in India it concentrated on objectives and external reality. They followed the modernism perspective of the organizational theory. As time passed by like many other organizations Coca Cola also changed its perspective now (Gopinath and Prasad, 2012). Coca-Cola has begun its operation in the Indian markets in the year 1956, after the parliament passed the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA). This act is required to control dealings and payments in foreign exchange of the country and appropriate utilization of the resources for economic development. Under FERA four level of foreign equity contribution were permitted. After facing conditions of FERA, 64 countries in India did not want to reduce their equity and wanted to wind-up their operations. Free from the reduction of equity, Coca Cola needed to acquire each section of license for importing the concentrate that is needed to manufacture the soft drinks. When a new official in GOI took charge to approve the import license, Coca cola was asked to report the particular ingredients used for the product and have its safety test in the food laboratories under the government to get the license. Coca cola after refusing to do so withdrew its business from India. If Thanda Matlab Coca Cola then Cold drink means toilet cleaner: Environmentalism of the Dispossessed in liberalizing India Economic liberalization means a country opening up to the world with respect to trade, taxations and other matters that affect business with the objective of making the country more market-oriented and increasing the role of foreign investment (Ciafone, 2012). Coca Colas unexpected reentry in the Indian market during the economic liberalization made ambitious global-citizenship for the upper middle class of India and business attachment for the ones who expelled the product and the resources to stimulate the consumption. Coca Cola now followed post modernism theory where they apply their own concepts and assumptions. Coca cola was like omnipresent. Many villages surrounded the companys manufacturing plants; they stood against the operation of the company and accused them of polluting and exploiting the groundwater which was also used commonly for the production of the bottled drinks. Due to this the vast area of the country fell into water scarcity crisis. Poor people have protected the environment in their areas and also in the cities. Their apprehension is their livelihood. Thus due to this environmentalism of the poor has expressed criticism to the corporate privatization and globalization revealing the exploitation of resources of the rural people so that the other side of the economic divide can consume. Coca Cola and PepsiCo in South Aftrica: A Landmark Case in Corporate Social Responsibility, Ethical Dilemmas and the Challenges of International Business Pepsi and coke have started their business in many countries for the last 100 years. They always had high stakes. They started a joint venture in South Africa; it was with good intention but was a misguided venture in the modern business scenario (Moses and Vest, 2010). There were enough problems in SA when Nelson Mandela was just released from jail; he told that Coca cola was doing its business through apartheid that is segregating the workers on the grounds of racial discrimination. He then went to US and told that these people (authorities of Coca cola) are not the right people to do business with because they are using apartheid as a tool to do its business. And thereby Coca cola was attacked by its stakeholders and other social people who questioned them, on the grounds of corporate social responsibility, social activities. Post modernism theory was being used here as they believed in power and did not follow conceptualized regulations (Moses and Vest, 2010). Right There with You Coca Cola, Labor Restructuring and Political Violence in Colombia Coca cola following a post modernism theory has configured the labor relations and has created new forms of politics (Gill, 2007). They followed the neo liberalism of restructuring. With the focus on the struggles that the workers took in South Africa, the company has created inequalities between them and the workers, thereby ruining the social relationships. It has also been seen by the trade union people how the work has degraded and there was violation of human rights. There were many problems and tensions that emerged due to the internationalizing of Coca Cola in Columbia (Gill, 2007). They used power over anything else. The company believed that the world is placed in discourse. When Business and Community Meet: A Case Study of Coca Cola Critical Sociology Coca colas involvement program occupied the centre-stage in the range of many corporations because they believed in sticking to the objective and external reality. They applied modernism theory here. They focused mostly on charity and employee related issues. There is always a vague attitude when it comes to involvement in community. Coca colas international branding strategy and involvement with community has gained applause. In this scenario they did not follow post modernism theory and did not stress on discourse. They did not believe in public speaking about their product but focused on how to attract people with their product and channelize them towards the company to maximize profits (Barkay, 2011). If we see now we will find that these involvement in community programs helps in the entrepreneurial ideology. Community Coca Cola Interface; Political-Anthropological Concerns on CSR It was seen previously that Coca cola was criticized on the aspect of corporate social responsibility. They believed in communication and practice than but it hides the inventions and motives. It is seen that the social responsibility of the corporate is sometimes problematic and also a lawfully discursive area that serves the migration process of the corporate. There were many concerns due to the company. The rural communities faced many ill-effects due to Coca cola while its operation in India. The company believed in power over each other forgetting the problems of the people (Raman, 2007). Determining the value of the Coca Cola Here the finance part is in concern. Various models and theories were used top form the basis of the financial data, performance of the stock price of Coca cola. Short-term operating ratio analysis was done to find out the inventory turnover, payables turnover, average inventory processing period, etc. Long-term investment analysis was done to find out the equity turnover, net fixed asset turnover, total asset turnover, etc Liquidity analysis measured Coca colas adequacy to meet the near cash obligations through current ratio, cash ratio and quick ratio Long-term debt analysis examined Coca colas structure of capital and if the company had the ability to fulfill the long-term debt. Profitability analysis measured Coca colas income in relation to its revenue and capital invested by operating margin of profit, net profit margin, return on equity, return on assets It also measured the economic value by comparing the net operating profit after taxes to the total cost of capital. This p ortrayed the management performance of Coca cola. Coca cola has also done the relative valuation to determine its value by comparing similar industries on the basis of many ratios that compared the stock prices to the appropriate variables that affected the value of stock (MOODIE, 2006). Conclusion Thus we can conclude that Coca cola has used the combination of both the perspective of modernism and post modernism in the organizational theory model. It has faced man y challenges starting from getting a license in India and then re-entering India to corporate social responsibility. Coca colas stock prices are still in a position when they can increase their worth. Be it modernism or post modernism, Coca cola just need to find out the right theory during their operation in particular countries. References Alexander, S. (2004). Book Review: Readings in Social Theory: The Classical Tradition to Post-Modernism. Teaching Sociology, 32(3), pp.335-336. Barkay, T. (2011). When Business and Community Meet: A Case Study of Coca-Cola. Critical Sociology, 39(2), pp.277-293. Bruns, G. (2001). After Ontology: Literary Theory and Modernist Poetics (review). Modernism/modernity, 8(3), pp.548-549. Ciafone, A. (2012). If Thanda Matlab Coca-Cola  Then Cold Drink Means Toilet Cleaner : Environmentalism of the Dispossessed in Liberalizing India. International Labor and Working-Class History, 81, pp.114-135. Coca-Cola Co (THE). (2005). Mergent's Dividend Achievers, 2(3), pp.60-60. Gill, L. (2007). `Right There with You': Coca-Cola, Labor Restructuring and Political Violence in Colombia. Critique of Anthropology, 27(3), pp.235-260. Gopinath, C. and Prasad, A. (2012). Toward a critical framework for understanding MNE operations: Revisiting Coca-Cola's exit from India. Organization, 20(2), pp.212-232. Green, M. and Crowther, D. (2004). Organisational theory. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Hindrichs, C. (2011). Late Modernism, 1928-1945: Criticism and Theory. Literature Compass, 8(11), pp.840-855. McBride, T. (2010). Organisational theory perspective on process capability measurement scales. J. Softw. Maint. Evol.: Res. Pract., p.n/a-n/a. MOODIE, E. (2006). Microbus crashes and Coca-Cola cash. American Ethnologist, 33(1), pp.63-80. Moses, C. and Vest, D. (2010). Coca-Cola and PepsiCo in South Africa: A Landmark Case in Corporate Social Responsibility, Ethical Dilemmas, and the Challenges of International Business. Journal of African Business, 11(2), pp.235-251. Posner, R. (2011). Post-modernism, post-structuralism, post-semiotics? Sign theory at the fin de sicle. Semiotica, 2011(183). Raman, K. (2007). CommunityCoca-Cola Interface: Political-Anthropological Concerns on Corporate Social Responsibility. Social Analysis, 51(3), pp.103-120. Srivastava, S. (2000). Concepts of Culture and Organisational Analysis: A Perspective. Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective, 4(S1), pp.32-42.